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Chandler - (Patent # 4388) midseason harvest; large, smooth, oval nut with good shell seal and very high quality kernel; excellent kernel color - consistently 90% + light grade; late leafing and bloom reduces frost, blight and codling moth susceptibility compared to earlier varieties; 80-90% lateral pistillate bloom; smaller size tree and lateral pistillate bloom suitable for high density plantings; precocious, medium to small size, highly productive, semi-upright tree; pollenized by Cisco and Franquette

• Chico -
early harvest; small, upright, highly productive tree; small size nut with excellent kernel quality; often planted as a pollenizer for Vina but well-suited as a primary variety in high density plantings due to smaller size tree and very high percentage of lateral pistillate bloom (90-100%); needs an early catkin blooming pollenizer such as Sunland, Serr or Payne

• Cisco -
extremely late-leafing variety with 80% lateral bud fruitfulness; large nuts with mediocre kernel quality--60% light kernels; yield potential may be limited; planted primarily as a Chandler pollenizer due to its precocious catkin production

• Franquette -
(Scharsch strain) late harvest; small well-sealed nut with very good quality, light kernel; 0% lateral pistillate bloom - all nuts form on terminal buds; very large, upright tree is slow to come into bearing; considered one of the best pollenizers for midseason to late blooming varieties although its slowness to come into catkin production may limit its ability to pollenize young, precocious Chandler trees.

• Howard - (Patent # 4405) midseason harvest; large, round, smooth and well-sealed nut with very high percentage of light kernels (90%); potential for less blight and codling moth susceptibility due to late leafing and bloom; 80-90% lateral pistillate bloom; good candidate for high density planting due to small to medium-sized, semi-upright tree that is smaller than Chandler or Vina; pollenized by Cisco or Franquette

Note:"% lateral pistillate bloom" refers to the percentage of fruit buds which are borne on the sides of branches rather than on terminal buds. Varieties with a high percentage of lateral pistillate bloom are more precocious and are considered better adapted to higher density planting, terminal fruit buds can be pruned off without removing entire crop.

Hartley - midseason harvest; large, well-sealed nut with high percentage of light kernels; most widely planted walnut in California, a premium in-shell variety; late bloom and leafing minimizes susceptibility to codling moth and blight; low (5%) percentage of lateral pistillate bloom; large, productive tree is susceptible to deep bark canker and slow to come into bearing; usually planted with Franquette as a pollenizer

• Payne - early harvest; medium to small, very well-sealed nut; approx. 50% light kernels; very susceptible to blight and codling moth due to early leafing and bloom; 80-90% lateral pistillate bloom; very productive, medium-sized, round-shaped tree needs good pruning program to prevent overbearing in young trees and maintain vigor in older trees; pollenized by Chico but self-fruitful due to good coincidence of pistillate bloom and pollen shedding

• Serr - Harvest is early to mid-season. Nut size is large, with a fair to good shell seal. Kernel is 60% light. Percentage of kernel is high at 59%. Serr planted on shallower, heavier, or less fertile soil seems to bear better. Serr tree size is large and requires a spacing of at least 40 feet. Shape is moderately spreading and vigor is good to excessive. Suitable pollinizers include Chico and Tehama.

• Sunland - An early leafing Californian cultivar carrying good crops of large nuts. Like many early leafing Californian selections, it is extremely sensitive to being infected with walnut blight if it is rainy in spring, and therefore not so suitable for humid areas. A good lateral bearer, 80% of lateral buds bear female flowers. Sunland has particularly big nuts, with kernels weighing 9.9 grams. Crackout is very good, at 58%. The nuts mature late. USA.

• Tulare - (Patent # 8268) midseason harvest; large, nearly round, well-sealed nut; 75-85% light kernels; midseason leafing; average of 78% lateral pistallate bloom; very productive, precocious, moderately vigorous, upright tree is suitable for hedgerow and other high-density systems; good coincidence of pistillate bloom and pollen shedding.

• Vina - early to midseason harvest; medium-sized, pointed nut with good shell seal; 60% light kernels; 80-90% lateral pistillate bloom; midseason bloom is moderately susceptible to blight and codling moth; medium-sized, round-shaped tree is moderately vigorous and highly productive; pollenized by Chico, Chandler, Howard or Tehama

Rootstock Available: Northern California Black (NCB) Seedling, Paradox Hybrid (NCB X Persian Walnut) Seedling.

Comparison of Walnut Varieties, U.C. Orchard, Davis*
  1992 bearing acres 1992 non-bearing acres Time of leafing Lateral bud fruifulness (%) Average kernel weight (g) Average % kernel Average % light-colored kernel   Crop est. (2) Average harvest time
  Payne
21,624 246 0 88 5.7 50 68 1.6 6.2 9/9
  Eureka
9,737 219 10 0 7.7 50 40 N.A. N.A. midseason
  Hartley
54,849 4,787 17 5 6.1 46 76 1.6 5.2 9/26
  Franquetter
18,572 413 26 5 5.3 47 90 1.4 5.4 10/10
  Serr
24,350 236 0 57 7.8 57 73 1.0 4.8 9/11
  Ashley
11,051 252 0 85 5.8 50 70 1.6 6.2 9/9
  Sunland
998 251 1 82 10.4 57 85 1.0 6.2 9/22
  Chico
3,552 210 2 96 5.2 47 60 1.0 6.0 9/9
  Vina
11,353 944 8 70 6.3 49 90 2.0 5.8 9/12
  Tehama
5,919 34 10 64 6.0 50 70 2.2 5.4 9/14
  Amigo
419 2 12 74 5.9 51 63 1.8 4.8 9/7
  Tulare
N.A. N.A. 12 72 7.5 53 86 1.6 5.8 9/17
  Pedro
506 0 15 63 5.6 47 86 1.8 5.4 9/17
  Howard
286 25 16 89 6.6 49 96 2.0 6.6 9/15
  Chandler
7,121 5,086 17 89 6.5 49 100 2.8 6.6 9/25
  Cisco
N.A. N.A. 25 77 5.7 46 86 2.0 5.2 9/29
*Five year average based on 10-nut or 4 tree sample each year.
1 Shell Strength = (1) very strong to (3) weak shell
2 Crop estimate = (1) very poor to (9) very heavy
Acknowledgement is given to the University of California at Davis and the USDA for the above chart.
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